Soviet Union and United States, how did they get into a pissing contest with each other about spying? How did sub-base of institutions such as the NSA come into existence?
First known spy satellite program in space is “Corona”, open name is “Discoverer”. Corona name is mentioned in only secret official documents until 1979. Program activity has been started in 1962 under the name of reconnaissance satellites. However, before it, there are well-rounded activities.
First spy satellites have been activated by both states in the years 1955-1956. Program name was “Crown” in United States, “Zenith” was the also Soviet Union. These first generation spies would take picture of earth surface as photographic from the outside atmosphere, and then these capsules were landed with helping tiny parachutes. This first generation spy equipment had a video transmission, over an encrypted radio frequency and former photo-television vision systems. These tiny capsules looked pretty harmless.
When the calendar showed the year 1957, established under the American Air Force, science and technology, directorship of central intelligence CIA has embarked on a program operating under the name of the Corona, for peeping the Soviet Union and China. The secret government decree of Soviet Union about a new satellite design, which will be used for reconnaissance over sputnik-3 from space and called object od-1 can be shown as valid reason for America “Corona” program.
If confusing question is: “Whereas this is a secret decree, how did United States learn this secret decree in the same year, even almost a couple days later and how did they come after Soviet Union’s technological development?” The striking thing here, the presence of German specialized scientists who worked in same scientific area after WWII both United States and Soviet Union. Besides the influence of the many spies operates, those German scientists didn’t leave correspondence between each other.
In May 1959, USSR began designing Fluoro-2 (detailed mapping and photographic equipment) which will go into space with first reconnaissance satellite Zenith over unmanned spacecraft Vostok-1k by the decision of the Central Committee of Council of Ministers. With this beginning Soviet Union would have commenced mass production at discovery-photography in 1962. Meanwhile, let’s see what the Americans are doing in 1959. Same year Feb. 29, they started the Corona as official. The works are done quickly for this and exploration equipment of Corona so “Discoverer” capsule would be sent in May. However, until August, Discoverer series can not succeed. In August 14, 4th unit of the Discoverer series would be the first American spy satellite, which was peeped to USSR and China from space even if looking out of the corner of its eyes, and turned back successfully.
The satellite models of Corona were called KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A and KH-4B. KH is abbreviation of “Keyhole” in English. 144 units were produced. During this period, 102 successful exploration photos were taken by them for intelligence.
In 1962, USSR has modified the Vostok-2, which is known as Yuri Gagarin for the equipment of reconnaissance satellite Zenith-2. It had failed and destroyed at the first attempt in December 11, 1961 due to problem of the third rocket feet. It fulfils a duty successfully in April 1962. In 1964, the order, which was given by Red Army to USSR Ministry of Defense, is accepted and 81 pieces “Zenith” reconnaissance satellites were produced. After all, the same year in 1964, the United States with Corona program was able to view the 25 strategic ballistic missile of Soviet Union. And the Soviet Union shouldn’t be late.
The knowledge of almost close to half difference between the figures of 144 American and Soviet Union’s 81 discovery satellite, is also important for in terms of determining which one of them wants to make more peeping.
This new form of intelligence, espionage from outer space, in 1969, changed with United States started doing mol- Manned Orbiting Laboratory. Mol system was a station project, which was connected with the world and one person placed in, and if it would be necessary by US it may fire, targeting the other satellites. And the Russians with thinking of “yankee, how would you fire to my satellite!”, they started the “Almaz” program in 1970. Perhaps for this reason or other reasons, US withdrew the firing issue. Russians continued the Almaz in a way of they will not fire blanks in space. And they made super improvements on it. For example Shield-2, which will be used for Soyuz-5 was developed in this period. Thus, Russian’ “diamond” program with five-station will be started in this way.
In 1976, Corona program KH-9 satellite was the first American spy satellite, which used electronic digital camera and the images will be transmitted obtained by photographing. If it is considered first digital photo machine is produced by Kodak in 1975, we can read this events as “all kinds of innovations in the world are trying as first over the spy satellites”. Even if the humanity in 2014 reproaches with saying that “they are peeping us to our bedroom, even in the toilet we are not alone”, in 1976 this spying incident with digital photos was not bother anyone. Human being was able to think “they only peep to the mountains, stones, flowers, insects, ocean, military facilities or missiles”. The people hadn’t evolved enough. Now, it can not be said that many of them can not estimate 50 years later, anyway.
Returning to the subject, the last KH-9 is lost in 1986 due to a booster explosion. Yes, its hexagonal piece surface debris is still drifting somewhere in the galaxy currently. Its dramatic end would be sample for especially in 1990 at the production stage of Hubble telescope about the issue, which damage can be of military spy satellites.
In the meantime, in 1978 a young CIA officer William K. sells describing technical information of KH-11’s construction and operation for $3000. He is charged with espionage and judge with 40 years. However, he is released after 18 months.
Of course in 2014, the peeping work of planet is still continued. This open name is not spy satellite. It makes under the name of military and defense, communication or commercial purposes satellites. And not just United States or Russia. There are 3707 artificial satellites around the planet according to the data in April 2013. Whose hand in whose pocket is not clear, briefly. The governments seem so happy within space works. They say that “we are going to mars, we establish the colonies over the moon, we have ISS and we are happy with working together tralalalala,” with happy image. All they are trickster. All they want to peep to until the humanity underpants. Which of course, the space has become the garbage dump lately.
Besides, open-eyed entrepreneur Swiss company has announced that they will start the first space garbage work in 2018. Maybe at least the solar system of planet will be cleared in the near future. After? Space will be garbage dump again, but with the utterly different reasons…