Seeing Red: stories of American Communists is a 1983 Academy Award-nominated documentary film directed by Julia Reichert and Jim Klein detailing the greatly overlooked history of the Communist Party of the United States and its supporters, which at its peak in the early 1940s boasted nearly 100,000 members. Founded in 1919, the Communist Party USA split from the Socialist Party of America following the Russian Revolution and went on to play a defining role in the American Labor Movement and the early part of the American Civil Rights Movement throughout the 1920s, 30s and 40s…
Seeing Red tells the stories of the dedicated women and men who fought for unionization, equal rights and the 8-hour workday, who dreamed of an America where workers had rights to collective bargaining and to be free of discrimination by their employers. Watch the feature film…
November 30, a sad news passed on Russian news.
“The first-class test pilot Marina Popovich, known as “Madame MiG”, died at the age of 86…”
She was a legend…
What was saying the news in Lenta.ru about her:
Popovich was the first woman to overcome the sound barrier on the MiG-21 fighter, for which she received her nickname.
She completed her flight career in 1984, when she was 53 years old. She has 102 world records in the field of aviation, including ten of them on the Antonov An-22 Antei heavy aircraft. She mastered more than 40 types of aircraft and helicopters, flew 5.6 thousand hours, had the title of Honored Master of Sports of the USSR.
In addition, Popovic was fond of ufology and literature. In the 2000s, she published books such as “UFO over the planet Earth” and “UFO glasnost”.”
What a life!
She came from a musician family. Marina had told about her childhood with these words in an interview:
“My dad was a violinist, in childhood I played with him (played on small cymbals), and uncle Karp – on the accordion at concerts. Such was our family’s instrumental ensemble. Therefore, my parent and relatives were sure: my future would be music.”
Marina’s sister, Valentina graduated from the conservatory, later became a conductor in the theater. The two brothers of her mother were pilots; The war prompted her to make a choice in favor of flying art. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the family was evacuated to Novosibirsk, but later she recalled:
We lived near Smolensk, in a small town Velizhe. We were constantly bombed, then I saw enough of the horrors of the war… After that, my cousins Misha and Volodya Ivanutiny, who were 9-12 years old, left for the partisans. The memory of the war is very strong… So, why I wanted to fly? I wanted revenge on the fascists. Take revenge. But while I was growing up, there were no fascists; and my desire to learn how to fly was left.
When she decided to become a pilot, the some obstacles she met.
One of the obstacles was the sex: Although during the Great Patriotic War (WW2) many women flew, but after the war, the era of jet aviation began and women were no longer enrolled in aviation schools for a while.
Another problem was that she was in a very young age, 16 years old, for which Vasilyeva “attributed” the extra 6 years to herself. (So actually although she was born in 1937, her birth day recorded as 1931) Marina got a reception from the Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR KE Voroshilov and received permission to enroll; so she had the opportunity to become a professional pilot.
Marina Vasilyeva began flying in 1948. In 1951 she graduated from the Aviation Technical School in Novosibirsk, after which she worked as a design engineer at the Komintern Plant (1951-1953).
After graduating from the Central Flight School DOSAAF in Saransk (later – the Moscow branch of the Kiev Aviation Institute), she worked there for some time as an instructor, and from 1958 became an instructor pilot in the Central Aeroclub named after VP Chkalov. To obtain the right to operate a fighter, she obtained admission to military service, and later graduated from the Leningrad Academy of Civil Aviation.
In the meanwhile in 1955, Marina married the future Soviet pilot-cosmonaut Pavel Popovich; marriage during 30 years. And she took Popovich surname.
1960, Marina Popovich began to master the technique of piloting on jet aircraft, and soon became the only military test pilot-class 1 in the country. In 1962, she was invited as a candidate for cosmonauts and underwent a medical examination as part of the second group of cosmonauts, but was not taken in the detachment.
In 1964, Marina Popovich was the first female test pilot to overcome the sound barrier on the MiG-21 jet fighter, for which she received the nickname “Madame MiG” in Western press.
In the summer of 1965, on a “RV” aircraft with two turbojet engines, She set a world record for the speed of this class of aircraft flying through a closed two-thousand-kilometer route at an average speed of 737.28 km / h. September 20, 1967 Popovich broke the world record of an American Jacqueline Cochran, flying on a plane “RV” on the route Volgograd – Moscow – Astrakhan – Volgograd 2510 km and exceeding the record by 344 km.
13 of its records are registered with the International Aviation Association (FAI). Ten world records were won by her as commander of the giant airship Antey (An-22, she became the only female pilot in the world to fly a plane of this class) In the last record-breaking flight, the crew headed by Popovich overcame a distance of 1000 km at a speed exceeding 600 km / h, with a cargo of 50 tons.
In 1969 she defended her thesis for the degree of candidate of technical sciences. The theme of the thesis is “Increasing the flight range due to laminarization and the methodology of flight testing of aircraft with control of laminated flow”.
In 1979-1984, ML Popovich worked as a leading test pilot in the Antonov Design Bureau in Kiev. At the age of 53, she completed her flying career, during which she flew 5600 hours, mastered more than 40 types of aircraft and helicopters, tested aviation equipment in the GC Chukalov Air Force Research Institute and OK Antonova KB (in that number of five types of aircraft – as a leading test pilot).
She also enthusiastically interested in mountain skiing and literary work, wrote wonderful poems, novels. She co-wrote nine books herself, including collections of poems, prose works, books on UFOs, etc. She was a member of the Writers’ Union of Russia, consisted in the Communist Party. She was the co-author of scenarios for the films “The Bouquet of Violets” (1983, directors Vera Stroeva, Oleg Bondarev) and “Heaven with Me” (1974, director Valery Lonskoy).
And her great love about cosmos and…
During one of the hikes in the mountains in the first time she observed a UFO. Later she left a note: “On August 13, 1982, I with Oksana (daughter) and four others were in the Pamir Mountains camp. At night, we were surprised to find that an “extra” star appeared in the constellation Ursa Major. It seemed brighter than other stars in the constellation. Suddenly the star broke away and began to increase in size. We decided unanimously and again stared at the fire. Sasha Rumyantsev’s voice made us raise our heads again. It was already more like a huge ball. It was the first time I had to watch a UFO. A second later, the ball of fire pushed forward, it was precisely how the telescopic antenna, the beam, pushed out, poured a gorge over the strong light. The smallest details, which were hidden a second ago, suddenly became visible. We instinctively squinted from the bright, very similar to the daylight, and when we opened eyes, the ball jerked away in the direction of Mount Dream. For a few moments we were in a state of shock, all of us in silence, then everyone started talking. A few minutes later the whole camp was already on its feet. Behind the mountain, where the ball hid, there was a strange radiance of a spherical shape. Through it was visible vegetation on the neighboring slopes. ”
After that “encountering” Marina Popovich began to painstakingly collect and summarize scientific materials about unidentified flying objects, abnormal phenomena in nature. She was in correspondence with ufologists living in different countries, regularly participates in international scientific conferences, writes books about the problems of ufology. Four books have already been published abroad: in Germany, Ireland, Hungary, Bulgaria.
Of course, this observation was not something ordinary people would tell. She’s an expert pilot, her informations about flying objects are a lot more than 90% of the people. When this is the case, Marina’s observation about UFOs is becoming more important.
I will not be able to comment much on this subject,(as you know due to some rules by Galactic Council) so I’m closing this subject for now.
Already for me she’s a legend, due to at first her aviating on MiG-21 and many others, and her records and full of life, not for her UFO observations.
And one of the legendary humans has passed amongst us… I hope her life and her achievements would be inspiring to many people around the planet earth. There are too many important things that the people can learn from Marina Lavrentyevna Popovich and the people like her.
“Легендарная Марина Попович навсегда улетела ввысь.
Мои соболезнования с глубоким уважением…”
(The legendary Marina Popovich forever flew up.
My condolences with deep respect…)
It’s been 3 years from the day when we started blogging. Unlike the 1st and 2nd anniversaries, this time today I feel like a truck crossed over me. I’ve been ill for a week, and I can not tell you that I’m still good. But more fine I guess.
Last week I had a chance to think about what’s missing in these years.
WD and I thought about this too much. No, no, not too much actually, just it came to our minds. 🙂
Looking at the years of war in the history of the world, it is obvious that everything is the same or very similar with todays. There is war, there is a cold war, there are stupid managements, there is hunger, there is poverty and etc.
What is missing in today’s, unlike the previous ones? There are no songs and singers who can help to mankind survive at the period. I have added the magnificent Leonid Kharitonov from Vietnam War and cold war years in here. I guess what I mean will be understandable when you listen his song.
And, Happy 3rd anniversary with you all, my Earthling friends!
Photo c. keith harmon snow
THE KOREA PROBLEM: This is What Democracy Looks Like
First published: 21 March 2017
Dissident Voice: 22 March 2017
Expanded herein: 27 March 2017
Edited / clarified: 28 March 2017
By Keith Harmon Snow
Dateline: SOUTH KOREA
The United States and its allies have embarked on a dangerous path of aggression against the government of North Korea and its allies China and Russia.
As usual, the western propaganda system presents a near unified front showing how horrible and atrocious the North Korean government is purported to be, and how murderous and ruthless and amoral their intentions are purported to be, and how their military objectives and missile programs–now allegedly targeting the ‘free’ world–are out to dominate the rest of the world, starting with their deadly missiles being launched against the United States and our ally Japan. So goes the propaganda.
Let’s look again.
The people of South Korea–a country permanently occupied by the U.S. military since 1950 with between 326,000 U.S. soldiers (during the Korean War) and closer to 30,000 annually since (with 28,500 U.S. soldiers in occupation today)–have seen massive human rights violations, repression and state terrorism. Since the first military dictator was installed in South Korea by the United States military in 1953, the Republic of Korea (ROK) has perpetrated massive atrocities against its own citizens and against citizens in other countries. This is a so-called “member of the international community.”
The Central Intelligence Agency under Allen Dulles launched covert operations in South Korea by 1950–utilizing South Korean police and other secret agents to serve the imperial “pro-democracy” agenda. The ever touted claim that North Korea launched a very clear war of aggression by crossing the 38th parallel–an arbitrary line of demarcation set up after WW-II by the United States between (then) Soviet Russia and U.S./U.N./allied forces–to invade South Korea is not born out by the facts that existed on the ground in the Korean peninsula in June of 1950. Not only are there credible reports of death squads crossing into the northern territory and committing atrocities, but the diplomatic record shows a pattern of belligerence and war-mongering on the part of the United States against the then northern ‘enemy’ that has become de rigeur for the United States all over the world since then.
THE UN-PRETTY HISTORY OF KOREA
Massive post-WW-II repression and murder (extrajudicial summary executions) by South Korean troops, with U.S. military oversight, occurred against their own people in the south, including such horrible massacres as occurred on Je Ju island 1948-1949 and were white-washed by the western propaganda and intelligence apparatus (see, e.g., the documentary film ” The Ghosts of Je Ju”). The somewhat more well-known Koch’ang incident in February 1951 involved some 600 men and women, young and old, that were reportedly herded into a narrow valley in south Korea and mowed down with machine guns by a South Korean army unit on the loosely applied claim that they were “suspected of aiding guerrillas” — these being Korean people who resisted the overt terrorism that the Korean people (north and south) were subjected to by the southern forces and U.S. troops.
The Governor of Je Ju at the time admitted that the repression of the Island’s 300,000 residents led to the murder of as many as 60,000 Islanders,” wrote S. Brian Willson, “with another 40,000 desperately fleeing in boats to Japan. Thus, one-third of its residents were either murdered or fled during the “extermination” campaign. Nearly 40,000 homes were destroyed and 270 of 400 villages were leveled.”
U.S. troops fired on crowds, conducted mass arrests, combed the hills for suspects, and organized posses of Korean rightists, constabulary and police for mass raids (reported at the time by correspondent Mark Gwyn for the Chicago Sun: see in William Blum Killing Hope).
Said one British scholar Jon Halliday at the time: “After all, if civilians could be mowed down in the South on suspicion of aiding (not even being) guerrillas–what about the North, where millions could reasonably be assumed to be Communists, or political militants?” (See: Killing Hope p. 51).
The U.S. military’s carpet bombing and chemical napalm bombing against the northern Koreans during the Korean War was murderous and unprecedented (though rivaled by the bombing of Dresden) and set the stage for the horrors that U.S. (and ROK) troops perpetrated on the people of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia in the 1960’s and early 1970’s. Some 100,000 British troops also participated in destroying and dividing the Koreas. Entire villages were obliterated, wiped off the map, wiped off the Korean peninsula. Some three million Koreans north of the 38th parallel were killed, with one million Korean people killed in the south and over one million Chinese deaths.
Please continue for full reading, via THE KOREA PROBLEM: This is What Democracy Looks Like — Keith Harmon Snow | Conscious Being Alliance — Taking Sides
One should not look further than imperialist centers to spot the source point of jihad and jihadists and in general the Islamist Policy
Jihadist propaganda inspired by the US
Monday, 09 January 2017 by SoLinternational
Nowadays, time flies so fast and people’s minds and memories are paralyzed by such a powerful mechanism that it becomes a necessity to remind people of the recent history more often than not.
So it is relevant to ask again: where do jihad and jihadists come from?
I am not pointing at the theological origins of the two; this does not necessarily concern the majority. The question and the problem are political. Approaching these two from a theological perspective will not yield any result but “religionalization” of the politics.
For this reason, one should not need to concern oneself with the history of the concept of bellum sacrum (holy war) which itself is old as the religions. The real question, the one that we should concern, is the origins of jihad as a “modern” political tool.
ARCHEOLOGY OF JIHAD
The term archeology was purposefully used to express this article’s main quest in seeking the conditions that gave birth to jihad as a modern political tool, the manner in which this concept/action evolved and how it was incorporated into today’s ruling system.
It can be, rather correctly, claimed that the timestamp of the jihad in its current form shows the 1970s and 80s. It is in Afghanistan where the jihad was evolved into today’s form at this time.
The origins of today’s jihad lie beneath a conspiracy organized against the Democratic Afghan Republic after the Saur Revolution in 1978, which has many similarities with today’s conspiracy against the Syrian Arab Republic in very broad terms.
The Saur Revolution in Afghanistan had many significant internal problems and conflicts. With this revolution, the laws based on sharia were abolished and a secular state was formed whereupon many reforms, to the extent that radically affected the property relations in agriculture, were implemented such as land reform, establishment of government-owned farms, recognition of trade union rights of the workers and equal civil rights to women. Also, Afghanistan adopted a friendly approach towards socialism which resulted in execution of a treaty of friendship between the U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan in December 1978.
The prevailing strategy of imperialism was then to smother all socialist-popular governments that had close ties with the Soviets at any cost and by any means necessary. For this reason, Afghanistan’s “stand” was in compliance with and hence crucial to the strategy of imperialism. Just like what was done against Allende administration in Chile in 1973 and the bloody and dirty war waged against Sandinista in Nicaragua shortly after the operation against Afghanistan started.
Readers should not take the expression “any means necessary” lightly. The most concrete example that I can think of is the scandal called “Irangate”. In 1986, the US sold weapons to Iran underhandedly and used the income from this to fund the counter-guerrillas in Nicaragua.
Let’s go back to Afghanistan… At that time, the means used to ensure the “stand” of Afghanistan was jihad.
In a short time, Pakistan, specifically Peshawar city of Pakistan, became the headquarters of the Afghani counter-revolutionary forces. Said counter-revolutionary forces being various Islamist groups inspired by “Muslim Brotherhood” and relatively smaller Maoist Organizations, such as the “Eternal Flame”.
It did not take long before these groups fell into the radar of the US. In fact, the US had already established close ties with the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and its offshoots in the region starting from the 1950s which became tighter during the early 1970s whereupon use of the “Islamism” card against popular/socialist governments or social movements in Middle East emerged as an imperialist strategy.
Afghani counter-revolutionaries, who found asylum in Pakistan, were mobilized through Muslim Brotherhood and Jama’at-i Islami, an organization directly supported by the government of Pakistan. The most notable of such Afghani groups was Hezb-e Islami, founded and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (a figure too well-known in Turkey) which acted in cooperation and collaboration with Taliban and even exchanged/shared members until very recently (September 2016).
In this period “experts” from the US started to visit Pakistan very frequently to train, supervise and guide Afghani counter-revolutionaries providing material and intellectual support in establishing the modern concept of jihad. The term mujahideen hit international headlines during this period and only as a result of these efforts. The mujahideen, i.e. jihadists, were whitewashed as freedom fighters combating the “Soviet invasion” and jihad was merely the name of this war of freedom.
“Modern” jihad and jihadists were categories devised with the funds from the CIA to fight against communism under the Cold War conditions.
In 1979, National Security Adviser to the President of US Zbigniew Brzezinski’s visit to Pakistan was the highest level of U.S. security expert visits to the country. A passage from his speech to jihadists on the Afghan-Pakistani border is quoted below. With his very famous Polish Accent, Mr. Brzezinski, told the following words:
We know of their deep belief in God, and we are confident that their struggle will succeed. That land over there is yours. You will go back to it one day, because your fight will prevail and you’ll have your homes and your mosques back again, because your cause is right and God is on your side.
During the same visit, Brzezinski also said “The purpose of coordinating with the Pakistanis would be to make the Soviets bleed for as much and as long as is possible.”
An enormous, CIA-supported propaganda machine was activated to work for triumph of Afghan mujahideen. Posters, brochures, magazines, newspapers, bulletins and so on… Though there are also materials that make fun of the Soviets and then-ruling Afghan Government, the dominant visual materials were highlights the ideal of “jihad” and the jihadists.
The jihadists, funded by imperialists, received highest level of attention. Then British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher (a.k.a. the Iron Lady) is one of the visitors of Afghan jihadists in 1981 on Afghan-Pakistani border. In her speech to 1500 jihadists, she pledges a further support of arms worth 2 Million Pounds and says that “the hearth of the free world is with you”.
Thatcher’s speech receives much applause and many shouting of Allahu Akbar.
In the year 1983, President of the US Ronald Reagan hosts representatives of jihadists in the White House. (1) In fact, the US is so tight with the jihadists that during a visit to Washington, Mohammed Yunus Khalis (once a comrade of Hekmatyar, the spiritual leader of Taliban and whom Osama bin Laden called “Sheikh Father”) invited U.S. President Reagan to embrace Islam.
The US support to jihadists, including Saudi Osama bin Laden, continued for many years.
JIHADIST GENERATIONS: “JAMIL WENT TO THE JIHAD”
In the post 9/11 era, the US support to jihadists has become a hot topic in U.S. newspapers. One of the most significant findings of these discussions was that the US did not roll up jihadists from existing Islamists but also raised children to create new generations of jihadists in a way that will “secure” the future of jihad.
Well, education, of course!
The “Education Center for Afghanistan” located in Peshawar, Pakistan and run by Afghan mujahideen was basically an offshoot of the Nebraska University of the US and the Center of Afghan Studies of this university. It was the Ministry of Education of jihadists in exile. The center was publishing books and giving “education.” The textbooks distributed by the center had been prepared by the Nebraska University. In the year 2002, the Washington Post exposed that the university received a funding worth of 51 million USD between the years 1984-1994 solely for this purpose.
What about the contents of these books?
The most notable study on the subject was published by Craig Davis in World Policy Journal in the year 2002. In this study, Davis examined the contents of the textbooks in Afghanistan. From the first-grade alphabet textbook, prepared by US, he shared the following examples of teaching Farsi to future mujahideen jihadi-style(!):
Alif (A) is for Allah- Allah is one.
Bi (B) is for Father (baba)-Father goes to the mosque.
Pi (P) is for Five (panj)- Islam has five pillars.
Ti (T) is for Rifle (tufang)- Javad obtains rifles for the mujahideen.
Jim (J) is for Jihad – Jihad is an obligation. My mom went to the jihad. Our brother gave water to the mujahideen.
Dal (D) is for Religion (din) – Our religion is Islam. The Russians are the enemies of the religion of Islam.
Zhi (Zh) is for good news (muzhdih) – The mujahideen missiles rain down like dew on the Russians. My brother gave me good news that the Russians in our country taste defeat
Shin (Sh) is for Shakir – Shakir conducts jihad with the sword. God becomes happy with the defeat of the Russians…
Zal (Z) is for Oppression (zulm)- Oppression is forbidden. The Russians are oppressors. We perform jihad against the oppressors.
Vav (V) is for Nation (vatn)- Our nation is Afghanistan. The mujahideen made our country famous. Our Muslim people are defeating the communists. The mujahideen are making our dear country free.
How do you think the C.I.A taught counting to the Afghan children? Here are some pages from mathematics book:
Thanks to the mathematics textbook prepared by the Nebraska University, Afghan kids learn their numbers through pistols, bullets, knives, landmines and bombs. What an exemplary pedagogical approach!
Some examples given in the mathematics book about four modes of operation are given below:
If out of 10 atheists, 5 are killed by 1 Muslim, 5 would be left.
5 guns + 5 guns = 10 guns
15 bullets – 10 bullets = 5 bullets
One last example from fifth grade literature arts textbook the text titled “Hikayat” starts with:
Dear students, I will recount the story of crimes committed by atheist Russians who invaded our lands due to carelessness of a group of mujahideen. Listen carefully and comprehend the results of carelessness and indifference.
Once this situation was exposed and given US’s engagement in re-establishment of its hegemony with the “war on terror” concept, various projects were launched to remove the violence elements from these textbooks. UNICEF destroyed more half a million books and new text books were published. Yet, it is reported that the old text books are still used by Taliban even if not by the central Afghan government and can be easily found even in Kabul.
JIHAD AS THE MODERN WEAPON OF IMPERIALISM
Naturally, this was not a project limited to Afghanistan. It is not mere coincidence that names of a series of Central Asian countries, the Region of Caucasia and Eastern Turkistan were mentioned after the recent assault to the Nightclub Reina. Similar “indoctrination” was implemented in all of these regions. It was spread to surrounding countries from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are bombed today on a daily basis by the US in the pretext of “war on terror”.
One should not look further than imperialist centers to spot the source point of jihad and jihadists and, in general, Islamism. U.S. journalist Ben Norton explains:
It is not a coincidence that most of the secular countries in the history of the Middle East have been socialist of some sort. In contrast, the most reactionary countries — the countries where women are not granted equal rights and where the rule of law is based on Sharia — have frequently tended to be close Western allies. Why? The West was much, much more interested in preserving capitalism than it was in allowing secularism, gender equality and relative economic equality to flourish under socialism.
Therefore, we can conclude that, even if use of the adjective of “modern” seems oxymoronic, jihad and jihadists are both dirty weapons armed in very recent history of imperialism and unleashed to sustain capitalism.
The article was quoted, and also it is very long article, I could only quote same parts. If you want to full read please continue on this link, Jihad and Jihadists: So where do they come from?
ps: Yes, the article is written in English, my Earthling friends.:)
4 Things to Remember About Chile’s 1973 Coup
June 26 marked the birthday of former president Salvador Allende, who died in the coup. Salvador Allende, the iconic left-wing leader and one of Chile’s best known presidents, was born on this day on June 26, 1908. The tragic fate of his government, overthrown in a right-wing
coup in 1973, changed the history of the country—and region—forever.
On September 11, Allende’s socialist was toppled by a U.S.-backed military coup led by Augusto Pinochet, barely three years after being elected.
Allende wasn’t the only casualty of the coup, as thousands of Chileans were subsequently tortured, jailed and killed by the military regime. Democracy in Chile was irreparably altered, and even now the country continues to be scarred by one of the darkest eras of fear and repression on the continent.
Social Progress Under Allende
After winning the 1970s presidential elections in Chile, the left-wing Salvador Allende worked toward social reforms and justice, nationalizing natural resources, building homes for the poor and focusing on better access to health and education.
Allende fought until the last hours of his life to defend the social gains and constitutional order. On his last speech, just minutes before the military bombed the presidential palace, he gave Chileans one last message of hope.
“I will not resign. Placed in a historic transition, I will pay the loyalty of the people with my life. And I tell them I have the certainty that the seed that we have planted in the dignified conscience of thousands and thousands of Chileans will not be shriveled. You have the power, they can destroy us, but social progress cannot be stopped neither by crime nor by force. History is ours, and people make it happen.”
Allende’s own army chief, Augusto Pinochet, led the coup and ordered his forces to march through the streets of Santiago, intimidating the local populace and entering La Moneda Presidential Palace by force.
Pinochet later consolidated power with the support of the United States and ruled the country with an iron fist for 17 years, until 1990. He jailed an estimated 80,000 people, tortured 30,000 and murdered around 3,200. Only 75 of more than a thousand of his former agents are serving prison sentences for human rights violations.
With the success of the 1969 revolution in Cuba, leftist movements in Latin America were emboldened, and Washington’s Manichean Cold War world-view translated into fears—and policies—that affected much of South America.
As declassified CIA documents show, the government of Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger influenced the military to overthrow Allende, and provided resources to deter any leftist movements in the country through the CIA.
As fears of the “Red Scare” grew, Washington opposed any form of socialist gains on the belief they would affect U.S. economic and political interests in the hemisphere.
Dubbed Operation Condor, a brutal campaign of political repression and state terror took hold of the continent, as the United States sought to obliterate leftist movements opposed to Washington-backed military coups in countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay — and Chile.
More that 25 years since the end of the dictatorships, social movements in Chile are still demanding that the remnants of the Pinochet regime – including the constitution passed in 1980 – be overturned…
For full reading please continue,
And the second part of this article:
By John Vibes The Unites States government has played a crucial role in the development of the complex and volatile political situation that now exists in the Middle East, and they have had a heavy hand in influencing the region since the first world war. From propping up dictators to funding rebel groups for regime change, the U.S. and their […]